The problems and Countermeasures in China's carbon

2022-08-01
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On the problems existing in China's carbon emission verification and Countermeasures

in the carbon trading system, the provision of carbon emission verification services by a third party is an internationally recognized means. In 2017, the national carbon emission trading market was officially launched, and it is urgent to further establish and improve China's carbon emission verification system. Recently, the Institute of sustainable development strategy of the Institute of strategic consulting and research of science and technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has conducted a comprehensive analysis of the seven carbon emission trading pilots of "two provinces and five cities", adopted the method of combining typical research and expert interviews, and took the Hubei carbon trading pilot as the main research object, investigated and analyzed the main body of carbon verification and relevant scientific research institutions, and absorbed the opinions of relevant experts, Put forward countermeasures and suggestions for the problems existing in the development of carbon verification in China

I. new problems faced by China's carbon emission verification

1 The carbon verification market is in short supply and the verification capacity is uneven. According to statistics, there are about 10000 enterprises included in the national carbon market, and only about 300 third-party verification institutions have been selected in 24 provinces and pilot areas. To complete the verification tasks on time, the number of existing verification institutions and inspectors is insufficient. The ministry put the board on the materials and included some irrelevant institutions such as scientific research institutions, carbon asset management companies and engineering consulting companies, resulting in uneven capabilities of the verification institutions. At the same time, there are differences in experience and heart among different verification institutions and different inspectors in the same verification institution, which directly affect the accuracy and fairness of verification

2. The carbon verification guidelines are not perfect and the verification standards are not unified. There are some problems in the existing verification guidelines, such as the industry division is inconsistent with the actual situation of enterprises, the calculation formula does not match the actual process flow of enterprises, the monitoring status of some enterprises is difficult to meet the requirements of the carbon emission calculation formula in the guidelines, or the measurement method is inconsistent with the requirements of the guidelines. In addition, the guidelines do not specify some verification items in detail, resulting in inconsistent verification standards. At the same time, there are also differences in the understanding and implementation of the verification guidelines by different verification institutions, resulting in inconsistent verification standards for the same industry and even the same type of enterprises

3. The source of carbon verification costs is not clear, and it is difficult to guarantee the independence of verification. At present, the verification fees for the historical emissions of enterprises are all paid by the local finance, while the verification fees for the carbon emissions of enterprises in the performance year are paid by the local finance or enterprises (such as Beijing and Shenzhen). Paid by local finance, to a certain extent, the independence of the verification agency can be maintained; The direct payment of verification fees by enterprises will affect the independence of institutions and the fairness of results. The verification agencies are selected through government procurement or bidding. As the cost review mechanism has not been established and the verification fee collection benchmark is not systematic, it is easy to cause power rent-seeking

4. The horizontal and vertical inspection and supervision systems of the machine are not perfect, and the inspection industry association has not been established. In the relevant measures for the management of the third-party verification institution of national carbon trading, the supervision and management of the verification institution are clearly defined, but there is no department, and only the general emphasis is on the responsibility of the national development and Reform Commission and the corresponding departments. The regulatory system of the third-party carbon verification institutions is not perfect, and the market is full of large and small verification institutions. At present, no relevant qualification consultation and certification standards have been issued, and the verification ability and market credit of verification institutions cannot be distinguished through qualification. At the same time, there is a lack of industry associations that can make up for the regulatory system

5. Carbon trading legislation needs to be strengthened and the legal system of carbon trading needs to be unified. Among the seven carbon emission trading pilots in China, only Beijing and Shenzhen have issued legal documents, and the other five pilots have issued relevant management measures in the form of provincial (municipal) government orders or government documents. The qualification management of third-party verification institutions and high economic penalties are the guarantee for the smooth implementation of the verification work. The government order (document) has weak legal effect and cannot establish administrative license. At the same time, the legal system of each pilot area has not yet risen to the national level, and has not taken into account the reality of non pilot areas and other regions, which restricts the cross regional practice and review of verification institutions, and affects the smooth start of the national carbon market

II. Suggestions on accelerating the development of carbon emission verification in China

1 Establish an entry and exit mechanism for verification institutions to improve their verification capabilities. Improve the access mechanism of third-party carbon emission verification institutions, and conduct qualification verification in accordance with the procedures of public solicitation, voluntary application of institutions, expert review and verification by relevant management departments; Comprehensively evaluate the credit rating, hardware qualification and development potential of verification institutions, explore the hierarchical management of third-party carbon emission verification institutions, and improve the market differentiation of verification institutions; At the same time of establishing the access mechanism, the exit mechanism will be introduced to exclude the verification institutions with bad records and standardize the market order

2. We will improve the industry standards for carbon verification and consolidate the basis for carbon emission monitoring and accounting. We will improve and issue the third party verification guide for national carbon emissions trading, and further standardize the workflow of carbon verification institutions. Scientifically divide organizational boundaries and reasonably set carbon quotas; The treatment methods for the adjustment of calculation parameters caused by enterprise restructuring and merger and output change are given; Improve the industry and process types included in the guide, make detailed provisions for various verification items, and unify the verification standards. Unify the statistical caliber and methods, form a set of independent energy consumption statistical statements of the national development and Reform Commission, the economic and Information Technology Commission, the Bureau of statistics and other governments according to the natural month, and can be traced to the data system of the original energy measurement records

3. Unified verification and review fees to ensure the independence and fairness of verification. In order to ensure the independence and accuracy of the verification institution, it is suggested that the national carbon emission verification and review fees should be allocated by the central government with special funds. In some areas, it is necessary to break through the charging standards for government procurement or bidding, open the procurement and bidding process, do not set any tendentious bidding requirements, give each institution a fair opportunity to participate in competition, and ensure the selection of verification units with appropriate qualifications and outstanding business capabilities. Establish a verification cost review system to continuously improve the efficiency of verification costs on the premise of ensuring the quality of verification, so as to squeeze the rent-seeking space of power

4. Establish a carbon verification Industry Association to comprehensively improve the verification and supervision system. Accelerate the establishment of carbon verification industry associations, build an inter agency exchange platform for verification, promote consensus on verification content, verification template, key parameter selection, etc., organize inter agency technology and experience sharing, and timely communicate problems in verification. Starting from the overall and long-term interests of the country, make overall consideration for the needs of different regions, establish and improve the supporting regulatory system for the verification of the national carbon trading market, and standardize the carbon verification workflow. Manage relevant information and data as a whole, and establish a unified system for management when conditions permit

5. We will strengthen legislation on carbon emissions regulation and establish a sound policy guarantee system. Accelerate the establishment and improvement of a legal and regulatory system with the regulations on the administration of carbon emission trading as the core, strengthen supervision and management according to law, and standardize the behavior of government departments, third-party verification institutions and enterprises in carbon verification and supervision. From the seven pilot areas of carbon emissions trading, we will expand outward, establish interregional carbon trading legislation, and then realize the transition from regional law to national superior law. At the same time, we will continue to improve the determination of total carbon emissions, quota allocation, third-party verification methods and evaluation index system, realize the standardization and scientization of carbon emission reduction, and make up for the defects of the technical system in the legal system

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